Download Ancient Natural History by Roger French PDF

By Roger French

В этом исследовании автор показывает, что древнее естествознание было собранием и представлением историй и феноменов, достойных упоминания философами, популяризаторами или торговцами чудесами. В этой книге исследуются отношения между физическим миром, богами, греческой философией и целями тех, кто выражал весьма различные понятия о «природе». Основное внимание автора уделено «Истории животных» Аристотеля, «Естественной истории растений» Теофраста, «Географии» Страбона, а также, в некоторой степени, «Естественной истории» Плиния Старшего. Одна из основных тем книги - то, как к естествознанию относились различные общества: греки, римляне, евреи и христиане.Образцы сканов:

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For example, it was obvious that ash must contain a great deal of heat, because a great deal of heat had gone into the making of it. As we noted above there was a sense for Aristotle that matter was strongly qualitative; or the qualities were in a 30 ARISTOTLE AND THE NATURES OF THINGS sense material. 101 Likewise watery bodies are cold, unless they retain an external heat, like wine. The Meteorologica is presented as the last of a series of works dealing with homogeneous bodies: that is, the elements and the ‘similar’ parts, the discussion of which is preliminary to that of the compound and complex bodies which follow, principally those of plants and animals.

An eye of a statue is an eye in name only, having no function; a saw in a painting likewise has no function and cannot be properly be called a saw. While it may be difficult to explain the function of fire, it is easier to give that of flesh, and easier still to give that of the flesh of the tongue. Aristotle is essentially looking back from the clarity of his method in the work on animals to explain how simpler things, and especially the elements and simple mixtures—the homogeneous metals in the earth, for example, and the ‘similar’ parts of living bodies—act, suffer and achieve their function.

The formulable essence of, say, a house might be something like ‘a protection against the weather’ while its material conditions are its bricks and mortar.

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