By Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy
What precisely are phrases? Are they the issues that get indexed in dictionaries, or are they the elemental devices of sentence constitution? Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy explores the results of those diverse techniques to phrases in English. He explains some of the ways that phrases are relating to each other, and exhibits how the background of the English language has affected be aware constitution. issues comprise: phrases, sentences and dictionaries; a be aware and its components (roots and affixes); a notice and its kinds (inflection); a be aware and its kin (derivation); compound phrases; be aware constitution; productiveness; and the ancient resources of English note formation.
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Additional resources for An introduction to English morphology: words and their structure
B. c. (35) a. b. c. This ﬁeld is greener than that one. *This ﬁeld is green than that one. *This ﬁeld is fertile than that one. The greenest ﬁelds of all are here. *The green ﬁelds of all are here. *The superior ﬁelds of all are here. On the basis of our experience with plurals of countable nouns and past tense forms of verbs, then, you will probably expect that every adjective lexeme should possess a comparative and a superlative form (or, at any rate, every adjective denoting a property that can be present to a greater or lesser degree).
Some of the following adjectives show that this is an oversimpliﬁcation. Which ones? (Consult a native speaker, if necessary. ) Recommendations for reading My use of the terms ‘lexeme’, ‘word form’ and ‘grammatical word’ is heavily inﬂuenced by Matthews (1991). For a readable and engaging discussion of the distinction between regular and irregular inﬂection, and of its wide implications for our understanding of how language is processed in the brain, see Pinker (1999).
Perfect or passive participle: e. basic form (used everywhere else): performs performed performing performed perform When two grammatical words that are distinct for some lexemes are systematically identical for others, as here, these forms are said to be syncretised, or to exhibit syncretism. The same syncretism also occurs with some irregular verbs, such as and (past = perfect participle dug, stung) and all those that use the sufﬁx -t, such as , , and (bent, felt, taught).