By Gerhard Nierhaus
Algorithmic composition – composing by way of formalizable equipment – has a century outdated culture not just in occidental tune heritage. this can be the 1st publication to supply a close review of famous techniques of algorithmic composition in a realistic means instead of through treating formalizable points in unmarried works. as well as an historical assessment, every one bankruptcy offers a particular classification of set of rules in a compositional context through delivering a common advent to its improvement and theoretical foundation and describes assorted musical purposes. each one bankruptcy outlines the strengths, weaknesses and attainable aesthetical implications due to the applying of the taken care of techniques. subject matters lined are: markov versions, generative grammars, transition networks, chaos and self-similarity, genetic algorithms, mobile automata, neural networks and synthetic intelligence are lined. the great bibliography makes this paintings excellent for the musician and the researcher alike.
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Additional info for Algorithmic Composition: Paradigms of Automated Music Generation
The boards, like the paper tapes, must be fed manually; an automatic control mechanism was only developed by the automata constructor Jacques de Vaucanson in 1745. In 1805, Joseph-Marie Jacquard built the ﬁrst model ready for production; by 1812 already 10,000 models were in use in France. The concept of scanning punched holes to transmit information was later used for the control of different automata. This basic principle of the punched card as a control and storage medium was only replaced by the magnetic tape in the 1960s.
C bpk. On the basis of these concepts, Charles Babbage (1791–1871) was the ﬁrst to tackle the construction of a universal calculating machine. Babbage was a mathematician and political economist. As an economist, he published amongst others “On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures” in 1834 whose marketeconomical analyses and reﬂections on production and factory system triggered the reorganization of the English economic system on a scientiﬁc basis. Babbage was a member of the “Royal Society” and “Lucasian professor” at Cambridge University.
This system consists of three categories of labeled wooden sticks (syntagmas) on which both numbers and rhythmic values are engraved. Kircher’s system allows for the automatic generation of contrapuntal compositions in the style of the contrapunctus simplex and ﬂoridus. In an advanced form, style-typical material of particular musical genres can be produced. In Kircher’s “Arca Musarithmica,” four-lined number columns can be combined with four-voice rhythmic patterns by means of the syntagmas. The number columns represent levels of different modes and are arranged in groups of 2 to 12 units.