Download Africa and the Blues by Gerhard Kubik PDF

By Gerhard Kubik

In 1969 Gerhard Kubik chanced to come across a Mozambican exertions migrant, a miner in Transvaal, South Africa, tapping a cipendani, a mouth-resonated musical bow. A related tool was once obvious within the arms of a white Appalachian musician who claimed it as a part of his personal cultural background. via connections like those Kubik learned that the hyperlink among those far-flung musicians is African-American track, the sound that grew to become the blues.

Such discoveries exhibit a story of tune evolution for Kubik, a cultural anthropologist and ethnomusicologist. touring in Africa, Brazil, Venezuela, and the us, he spent 40 years within the box collecting the cloth for Africa and the Blues. during this publication, Kubik relentlessly lines the distant genealogies of African cultural track via eighteen African countries, particularly within the Western and critical Sudanic Belt.

Included is a accomplished map of this cradle of the blues, in addition to 31 images amassed in his fieldwork. the writer additionally provides transparent musical notations and outlines of either African and African American traditions and practices and calls into query the numerous assumptions approximately which components of the blues have been "European" in beginning and approximately which got here from Africa. certain to this e-book is Kubik's perception into the methods present-day African musicians have followed and enlivened the blues with their very own traditions.

With scholarly care yet with an ease for the overall reader, Kubik proposes a wholly new thought on blue notes and their origins. Tracing what musical characteristics got here from Africa and what mutations and mergers happened within the Americas, he indicates that the African American culture we name the blues is actually a musical phenomenon belonging to the African cultural world.

Gerhard Kubik is a professor within the division of ethnology and African stories on the college of Mainz, Germany. on the grounds that 1983 he has been affiliated with the heart for Social study of Malawi, Zomba. he's an everlasting member of the guts for Black track examine in Chicago and an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute of serious Britain and eire, London.

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The boards, like the paper tapes, must be fed manually; an automatic control mechanism was only developed by the automata constructor Jacques de Vaucanson in 1745. In 1805, Joseph-Marie Jacquard built the first model ready for production; by 1812 already 10,000 models were in use in France. The concept of scanning punched holes to transmit information was later used for the control of different automata. This basic principle of the punched card as a control and storage medium was only replaced by the magnetic tape in the 1960s.

C bpk. On the basis of these concepts, Charles Babbage (1791–1871) was the first to tackle the construction of a universal calculating machine. Babbage was a mathematician and political economist. As an economist, he published amongst others “On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures” in 1834 whose marketeconomical analyses and reflections on production and factory system triggered the reorganization of the English economic system on a scientific basis. Babbage was a member of the “Royal Society” and “Lucasian professor” at Cambridge University.

This system consists of three categories of labeled wooden sticks (syntagmas) on which both numbers and rhythmic values are engraved. Kircher’s system allows for the automatic generation of contrapuntal compositions in the style of the contrapunctus simplex and floridus. In an advanced form, style-typical material of particular musical genres can be produced. In Kircher’s “Arca Musarithmica,” four-lined number columns can be combined with four-voice rhythmic patterns by means of the syntagmas. The number columns represent levels of different modes and are arranged in groups of 2 to 12 units.

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