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By Günter Obe, H.H. Evans, D. Frankenberg, M. Frankenberg-Schwager, E. Gebhart, W. Köhnlein, R.H. Nussbaum, D.G. Papworth, J.R.K. Savage, R.-D. Wegner

Applied genetic study, genetic toxicology and mutation learn examine the mutagenicity and cancerogenicity of chemical substances and different brokers. everlasting mutation in genes and chromosomes, will be triggered by means of a plethora of brokers, together with ionizing and nonionizing radiations, chemical substances, and viruses. one of the facets mentioned by means of Advances in Mutagenesis Research are (1) the certainty of the molecular mechanisms resulting in mutations, and (2) the prevention of a inconsiderate creation of mutagenic brokers into the environment.

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Evans rate in rats exposed to radon and radon daughters by inhalation could be fitted to a model in which the inactivation of both alleles of tumor suppressor genes leads to malignant transformation (Moolgavkar et al. 1990). , Guerrero et al. 1984a; Mizuki et al. 1985; Garte et al. 1987; Frazier et al. 1988). Studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on oncogene activation have for the most part utilized low-LET radiation. Alterations in oncogenes in transformed cells or tumors induced by low-LET radiation have been reported in the case of c-K-ras (Guerrero et al.

Acknowledgments. The author is very grateful to Drs. Nancy Oleinick and Oddvar Nygaard of Case Western Reserve University, Joel Bedford of Colorado State University, and John B. Little of Harvard University for helpful discussions and review ofthis manuscript. S. E. contract DE-FG0288ER60658. H. Evans References Aghamohammadi SZ, Goodhead DT, Savage JRK (1988) Induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Go lymphocytes by plutonium-238 (X-particles. Int J Radiat Bioi 53:909-915 Aufderheide E, Rink H, Hieber L, Kraft G (1987) Heavy ion effects on cellular DNA: strand break induction and repair in cultured diploid lens epithelial cells.

Fig. 6A,B. Relationship between cell survival and the induction of chromosomal aberrations by X-radiation and 238pu a-particles. Symbols are the same as in Fig. 5. A Mean number of chromosomal aberrations per cell; B percentage of cells containing aberrations (Nagasawa et al. 07 rings/dicentrics per cell. 005 Gy, a dose which would theoretically result in a-particle traversal of the nucleus in only 3% of the cells. The authors suggest that the induction of SCE therefore occurs by an indirect mechanism (Nagasawa et al.

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