By Alexander S. Raikhel (auth.), Kerry F. Harris (eds.)
Volume nine during this sequence includes 4 chapters on vectors that have an effect on human or animal healthiness and 6 chapters on plant pathogens and their vectors. In bankruptcy 1, Alex S. Raikhel discusses vitellogenesis in mosquitoes: the cornerstone of the reproductive cycle concerning tremendous creation of yolk precursors by means of the fats physique and their accumulation in constructing oocytes. In anautogeneous mosquitoes, vitellogenesis depends at the availability of a blood meal and, accordingly, is associated with transmission of pathogens. for that reason, elucidation of mechanisms governing the mosquito vitellogenesis is necessary for the profitable improvement of novel recommendations in vector and ailment administration. earlier studies on mosquito vitellogenesis have dealt predominantly with hormonal regulate. The target of this overview, despite the fact that, is to summarize major growth which has been accomplished in realizing mosquito vitellogenesis on the mobile, biochemical and molecular degrees. it's with those disciplines that we predict to completely comprehend the mechanisms governing this key strategy in mosquito reproduction.
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Extra resources for Advances in Disease Vector Research
Lanes: M-RNA standards; i-total RNA from male mosquitoes; 2-total RNA from unfed, 4-day-old females; 3 and 4 total RNA from females 24 and 48 hrs after a blood meal respectively. ) Tests using serine protease inhibitor, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, have demostrated that only the 48-kDa polypeptide is an active enzyme (26). We suggest that yep may playa role in activation of hydrolases associated with yolk bodies or other events at the onset of embryonic development. Serine proteases have been shown to participate in degradation of yolk during embryonic development in Drosophila (103), silk moth (75) and ticks (40, 41).
FMRFamide- and pancreatic polypeptide-like immunoreactivity in midgut endocrine cells of a mosquito, Tissue Cell 18:419-428. 24. , 1989, Neuroendocrine and midgut endocrine systems in the adult mosquito, Adv. Disease Vector Res. 6:29-58. 25. , 1985, Ultrastructure of midgut endocrine cells in the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, Tissue Cell 17:709-721. 26. , 1991, Extraovarian protein accumulated in mosquito oocytes is a serine carboxypeptidase activated in embryos, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:10821-10824.
A full-length cDNA coding for VCP has been cloned and characterized and cloning of its gene(s} is in progress (26). A number of genes for ribosomal RNAs and proteins have been characterized as well (44). Recently, a lysosomal protease has been purified (27), and its cDNA clone isolated (Cho and Raikhel, unpublished). Once these gene sys- 1. Mosquito Vitellogenesis 31 tems are structurally characterized, further progress in elucidating regulation of their expression, as well as their future biotechnological applications, will depend on the availability of gene transformation in mosquitoes.