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By John B. Butt

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Extra resources for Activation, Deactivation, and Poisoning of Catalysts

Sample text

In nondeactivating systems, the spatial variation and its effects on the reaction kinetics can be obviated by using a recycle reactor as shown in Fig. 2-6. The system is designed to permit only a differential amount of reaction to take place per pass. In this manner, integral conversion takes place; however, each catalyst particle in the system is exposed to the same concentration and temperature history. Nevertheless, as the catalyst deacti­ vates, the conversion and possibly the temperature change and again it is necessary to separate the effects of these changes on the activity and on the rate of reaction.

The sequence of Eqs. (2-10) and (2-11) leads to the familiar LHHW result, which is Reaction rate = 01 = k2X2 (2-14) From Eq. (2-11), it follows further that X2 = K1CAXl (2-15) X3 = K3CBXl (2-16) and, using Eq. (2-13), these relations lead to Xi = i + KlCA+K3cB {2Λ1) The form of Eq. (2-17) requires some comment. It has, of course, the familiar denominator terms of the LHHW treatment. It differs, however, by the appearance of X4 in the numerator. The difference X0 - X4 corre­ sponds to the unpoisoned surface; accordingly, Eq.

2-80) was possible because (ci9 T) was constant. In principle, the rate could also depend on concentrations of reactants and/or products. When we consider a catalyst pellet and later a bed of catalyst pellets, (f>(ci9 T) will depend on the local conditions because, in general, c, and T vary with position as conversion is taking place and, at a point, c, and T vary in time because of deactivation of the catalyst. However, if we assume that at the point where deactivation occurs the concentrations do not change with time, then we obtain the solutions given in Eq.

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