By Lisa Brannon-Peppas
In recent times, there was a veritable explosion of analysis and improvement in consumer-oriented fields that make the most of polymeric fabrics which soak up quite a lot of water. those fields surround the coaching, characterization and commercialization of separation platforms, pharmaceutical and private care items equivalent to baby diapers, female items, incontinence items and plenty of different similar components. The polymeric fabrics used in those purposes are often called absorbent or superabsorbent fabrics due to their skill to swell swiftly and to keep huge volumes of water, urine and different organic fluids. the purpose of this publication is to introduce the basics of polymer constitution and swelling as on the topic of polymers used for those superabsorbent fabrics. within the box of absorbence, specific realization is given to crosslinked constructions which swell to greater than fifty occasions their preliminary weight in water or electrolytic options. The ebook additionally offers descriptions of novel purposes of superabsorbent fabrics in addition to an in depth research of water delivery in crosslinked polymers
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Additional info for Absorbent Polymer Technology
O. Box 708, Greenfield, IN 46140, USA SUMMARY In preparing and evaluating polymers for use as absorbent materials, it is critical to know those parameters which will govern the nature of the final polymer. This chapter presents different methods of producing and characterizing crosslinked polymers. Mathematical analyses are given to calculate the degree of swelling, molecular weight between crosslinks, and other characteristics of neutral and ionic polymers based upon such values as the polymer/solvent interaction parameter, dissociation constant of the pendant chains within the polymer and number average molecular weight before crosslinking.
That agent usually links two longer molecular weight chains through its di- or multi-functional groups. Chemical preparation of networks for hydrogels can be achieved by two main techniques. According to the first technique, which applies to the majority of networks, linear or branched polymers are crosslinked in the presence of irradiating sources or using a small chemical compound, such as an aldehyde. For example, poly(vinyl alcohol) is crosslinked by glutaraldehyde  in the following manner: 51 polymer molecule 7 - rays water polymer chain macroradical RADICAL FORMATION CHAIN SCISSION INTRAMOLECULAR CROSSLINKING INTERMOLECULAR CROSSLINKING FOLLOWED BY INTRAMOLECULAR CROSSLINKING Figure 2.
The resulting product was dried, and exhibited at least a 15 g/g absorbency in synthetic urine. At elevated pH the complex broke down, yet reformed at lower pH, allowing the composition to be applied to a substrate while fluid (high pH) and then crosslinked in place (lower pH). Erickson and Krajewski  prepared absorbent polyacrylates by reacting a carboxylate containing polymer with a crosslinker which can react with carboxyl groups. The reaction was conducted in a viscous, aqueous solution which had been aerated such that the resulting cured film had rapid absorbence of aqueous fluids due to increased porosity.