By Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet
This sensible guide brings jointly a variety of bibliographic details on irregular pressures and provides the sensible event of the authors and diverse specialists inside Elf-Aquitaine. essentially destined for everyday use by means of subsurface geologists and drilling engineers anyplace they're faced with the issues of overpressure, it describes a few of the origins of strain anomalies, and information the equipment on hand for his or her prediction, detection and review. it is going to even be worthwhile to petroleum geologists, petroleum engineers and reservoir engineers as a reference guide.
checklist of central Abbreviations
desk of Contents
1. strain options
2. The Origins of Non-Hydrostatic irregular Pressures
three. Prediction and Detection
four. Quantitative strain review
five. precis and total Conclusions - aid Chart
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Extra info for Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation
Fig. 28. - The role of faults in pressure distribution. 51 SSE Interval transit time NNW 0 mlsl 1000 . r 3 al 2000 - -5 E a al n 3000- 4000. 4500 - .... Top undercompaction ', \ Fig. 3 EMW FFA bdeq') :lsopressure (undercompacted zone. Pressures induced by lateral loading laterally induced overpressure - Growth fault zone, Niger Delta Normal faults are the result of a stress field where S, is vertical and S3 is horizontal. As they are created by a system in extension and therefore tend to be open, they are often effective drains, and provide links between reservoirs which help to equalise pressure gradients.
Similarly, anhydrite rehydration is accompanied by an increase in volume of the same order. Louden suggests that such a process is capable of generating abnormal pressure, as 47 may be the case with the Mississippi Buckner Formation, whose approach marked by a gradual transition from anhydrite to gypsum. This second hypothesis is still highly debatable. It would require the anhydrite deposits to expand to a considerable extent ; and it has yet to be proven that subsurface anhydrite rehydration occurs on a significant scale.
May be superimposed on the overburden effect - geothermal gradient plays a major role - significant smectite proportion in the original deposit Thick argillaceous sequences Osmosis - rare second order cause - transient, unstable phenomenon - difficult to prove - special cases : localised, transient pheno- lnterlayering of clay with lenticular reservoirs of contrasting salinity of organic matter and hydrocarbons Miscellaneous : Sulfate diagenesis Carbonate compaction Permafrost - mena Evaporite deposits chalk talik/permafrost 61 3.