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By Frederic Phillip Mennell

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The rings of the interference figure will be shifted towards In the the centre, and in the other two away from it. case of a positive crystal, the rings contract where crossed by the axial plane of the mica, and expand in a direction For a negative crystal the reverse at right angles to it. holds good. It will be noticed that the optic axis opens out into two dark spots. If the line joining them would cross the axial plane of the mica, the mineral is positive if the reverse, negative. ; A MANUAL OF PETROLOGY 27 TRANSPARENT MINERALS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO OPTICAL PROPERTIES.

G of decomposition, first becomes bleached, then converted into chlorite. Lenticles of calcite, chlorite, or epidote, and rhombohedra of dolomite or chalybite, frequently form between the cleavage planes in the process. In thin sections they are yellowish, reddish-brown, or greenish to almost opaque. All the black and brown micas will here be grouped together as varieties of biotite. Absorption very strong and pleochroism very marked, FIG 27. SECTION OF BIOTITE, almost exactly parallel to base, showing- regularly arranged In granite, Sikinclusions of rutile needles.

The difference of its angles, however, from those of orthoclase is scarcely measurable though, on the other hand, its microscopic structure, as shown in polarised light, renders its distinction a matter ; Besides these, we have the group of plagioclases, readily discriminated for the most part from orthoclase, and microcline, but not so easily separated from one another, though such a separation is of great of the greatest ease. importance for classificatory purposes. Nevertheless, methods have been devised which enable a distinction to be made without great difficulty, in most instances, and some account of these is given below.

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