The 2014 ASHRAE Handbook€”Refrigeration covers the refrigeration gear and structures for purposes except human convenience. This quantity contains facts and information on cooling, freezing, and storing foodstuff; business and clinical purposes of refrigeration; and low-temperature refrigeration; and features a dual-unit CD.
CD method requisites: home windows: CD-ROM force; 1.3 GHz or swifter processor; Microsoft home windows Vista, home windows 7, or home windows eight (62-bit and 64-big); 1 GB of RAM (2 GB recommended); Microsoft net Explorer eight or greater; Adobe Acrobat/Reader 10.0 or better; 350 MB hard-disk area. Macintosh: Mac OS X v. 10.5.8 or v. 10.6.4; 512 MB of RAM (1 GB recommended); 415 MB hard-disk house; 800 x six hundred display solution (1024 x 768 recommended); Safari four for Mac OS X v. 10.5.8, Safari four or 5.0x for Mac OS X v. 10.6.4, Safari 6.0 for Mac OS X v. 10.7.4 or v. 10.8; Firefox; Adobe Acrobat/Reader 10.0 or better. quotation: 2014 ASHRAE Handbook
ASHRAE, based in 1894, is a world association of a few 50,000 people. ASHRAE fulfills its challenge of advancing heating, air flow, air-con, and refrigeration to serve humanity and advertise a sustainable global via learn, criteria writing, publishing, and carrying on with schooling.
The ASHRAE Handbooks are the layout typical for keep an eye on of outfitted environments with volumes on platforms and kit, HVAC functions, Refrigeration and basics. each one is up-to-date each 4 years. as well as publishing layout information for engineers, architects, and facility managers, we additionally post a chain of texts for school room use.
a few of the parts we post in include:
-Energy Modeling and Auditing
-High functionality development Design
-Indoor Air caliber and Environmental Quality
-Data heart strength Efficiency
-Noise & Vibration Control
-HVAC for Healthcare amenities
Read or Download 2014 ASHRAE Handbook -- Refrigeration (SI) (Ashrae Handbook Refrigeration Si (Systems-International) PDF
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Additional info for 2014 ASHRAE Handbook -- Refrigeration (SI) (Ashrae Handbook Refrigeration Si (Systems-International)
In some installations with multiple compressors and with capacity control, a vertical hot-gas line, sized to transport oil at minimum load, has excessive pressure drop at maximum load. When this problem exists, either a double riser or a single riser with an oil separator can be used. Double Hot-Gas Risers. A double hot-gas riser can be used the same way it is used in a suction line. Figure 18 shows the double riser principle applied to a hot-gas line. Its operating principle and sizing technique are described in the section on Double Suction Risers.
Here, the bypass is connected into the low side between the expansion valve and entrance to the evaporator. If a distributor is used, gas enters between the expansion valve and distributor. Refrigerant distributors are commercially available with side inlet connections that can be used for hot-gas bypass duty to a certain extent. Pressure drop through the distributor tubes must be evaluated to determine how much gas can be bypassed. This arrangement provides good oil return. Solenoid valves should be placed before the constant-pressure bypass valve and before the thermal expansion valve used for liquid injection desuperheating, so that these devices cannot function until they are required.
A superheat-controlled expansion valve can perform the same function. If a discharge line check valve is used, it should be downstream of the oil separator. Surge Drums or Accumulators A surge drum is required on the suction side of almost all flooded evaporators to prevent liquid slopover to the compressor. Exceptions include shell-and-tube coolers and similar shell-type evaporators, which provide ample surge space above the liquid level or contain eliminators to separate gas and liquid. A horizontal surge drum is sometimes used where headroom is limited.